Herbert J.Reich "Principles of electron tubes"

1941, Reprinted and distributed by Audio Amateur Press, 1995

Preface (V)
List of Symbols (XIII)
CHAPTER 1
Physical Concepts (1)
Excitation, ionization, and radiation.
Ionization and excitation potentials.
Structure of atoms.
Types of ionization.
Ionization by collision.
Photo-ionization and ionization by cosmic rays.
Space charge and space current.
Deionization.
Free electrons; electron affinity.
Contact difference of potential.
Emission of electrons and other ions from solids.
Electron dynamocs.
Motion of electrons in electric fields.
Electron transit time.
Motion of electrons in magnetic fields.
Problems.
Bibliography.
 CHAPTER 2
Thermonic Emission. The High-Vacuum Diode (21)
Physical theory of thermionic emission.
Richardson's equation.
Tungsten and thoriated tungsten emitters.
Electron microscopes in the study of activation.
Oxide-coated emitters.
Cesiated tungsten emitters.
Mechanical construction of cathodes.
Effects of gas upon emission and space currents; getters.
Limitation of anode current by space charge.
Child's law.
Deviations from Child's law observed in practical diodes.
Plate dissipation.
Tube classification.
Structure of typical glass and metal tubes.
Bibliography.
CHAPTER 3
Grid-Controlled High-vacuum Tubes (48)
Value of the grid.
Theory of grid action in triodes.
Functional equations for plate and grid currents.
Time of transit of electrons.
Static and dynamic characteristics.
Tube factors.
Relation of tube factors to characteristics curves.
Sharp-cutoff and remote-cutoff grids; variable-mu tubes.
/The screen-grid tetrode.
The space-charge tetrode.
The suppressor pentode.
The beam pentode.
Duplex and multigrid tubes.
Applied voltages in grid and plate circuits; load impedance.
Form of alternating-plate-current wave.
Static and dynamic operating points.
Symbols for electrode voltages and currents.
Voltage and current relations in grid and plate circuits.
Harmonic generation.
Series expansion for alternating plate current.
Intermodulation.
Relation of series coefficients to characteristic curves.
Dynamic plate resistance.
Problems.
CHAPTER 4
Methods of Analysis of Vacuum Tubes and Vacuum-Tube Circuits (89)
Equivalent electrode circuits.
Tube capacitances and admitances.
Static load line.
Dynamic path of operation; dynamic load line.
The plate diagram.
Applications of the plate diagram.
Graphical analysis of electrode currents.
Percentage distorsion and distorsion factor.
Graphical determination of power output.
Problems.
Suplementary bibliography.
CHAPTER 5
Amplifier Definitions, Classifications, and Circuits (114)
Types of amplifier distortion.
Voltage, current, and power amplifiers.
Amplifier circuits.
Frequency range of amplifiers.
Class A, Class AB, Class B, and Class C amplifiers.
The decibel and the volume unit.
CHAPTER 6
Analysis and Design of Amplifiers (132)
Single-tube amplifier with impedance load.
Direct-coupled amplifier.
Impedance-capacitance-coupled amplifier.
Resistance-capacitance-coupled amplifier.
Transformer-coupled audio-frequency amplifier.
Comparision of resistance-couped and transformer-coupled audio-frequency amplifiers.
Inductance-coupled audio-frequency amplifier.
Choice of tubes for audio-frequency amplifier.
Control of amplification of audio-frequency amplifiers.
Tone control.
Tuned radio-frequency amplifiers.
Use of by-pass condensers to prevent oscillation.
Limitation of amplification.
Measurement of voltage amplification.
Determination of frequency response of amplifiers.
Current amplifiers.
Trigger circuits.
Methods of analysis of power amplifiers.
Power relations in vacum-tube plate circuits.
Plate dissipation, power output, and plate-circuit efficiency.
Optimum power output.
Class A1 triode power amplifiers.
Class A1 pentode amplifiers.
Graphical determination of the performance of Class A1 power amplifiers.
Measurement of power output.
Experimental determination of optimum power output and optimum load.
Push-pull power amplifiers.
Class AB power amplifiers.
Turn ratio of output transformer.
Inverse-feedback amplifiers.
Problems.
Suplementary bibliography.
CHAPTER 7
Modulation and Detection (179)
Need for modulation; definition of modulation.
Basic theory of amplitude modulation.
Amplitude modulation by characteristic curvature.
Amplitude modulation by complete rectification.
Linear-plate and linear-grid modulation.
Detection of amplitude-modulated waves.
Detection of curvature of current-voltage characteristics.
Detection by complete rectification; linear diode detction.
Linear plate detection and linear grid detection.
Radio communication by means of amplitude-modulated waves.
Basic theory of frequency modulation.
Phase modulation.
Frequency-modulation circuits.
Detection of frequency-modulated voltages.
Advantages of frequency modulation in radio communication.
Problems.
Supplementary bibliography.
CHAPTER 8
Vacuum-Tube Oscillators (214)
Types of oscillators.
Negative resistance oscillators.
Feed-back oscillators.
Limitation of amplitude of oscillation.
Frequency stability; crystal and magnetostriction oscillators.
Beat-frequency oscillators.
Resistance-tuned oscillators.
Relaxation oscillators.
Use of relaxation oscillators.
Use of relaxation oscillators in frequency transformation.
Problems.
CHAPTER 9
Glow- and Arc-Discharge Tubes (233)
Current-voltage characteristics of glows.
Physical aspects of the glow discharge.
Normal and abnormal glow.
Applications of glow tubes.
The glow tube as a voltage stabilizer.
The glow-tube relaxation oscilator.
Grid control of glow discharges.
Grid-glow-tube circuits.
Starter-anode glow tubes.
Arc dischargers.
Arc-discharger tubes with separately heated cathodes.
Tungar rectifier.
Cathode structure of low-pressure hot-cathode arc tubes.
Tungar rectifier.
Cathode structure of low-pressure hot-cathode arc tubes.
Choice of gas or vapor for arc tubes.
Grid control of arcs; the thytatron.
Grid current of thyratrons previous to firing.
Control of arc-tube firing by means of an external grid.
Magnetic control of thyratrons.
Deionization in thyratrons.
Voltage and current ratings of thyratrons and phanatrons.
Electrode structure and characteristics of thyratrons.
Comparision of thyratrons and high-vacuum tubes.
Precautions required in the use of arc tubes.
Applications of hot-cathode arc-discharge tubes.
The hot-cathode arc diode as rectifier.
The thyratron as a d-c control device.
The parallel arc-extinction circuit.
Thyratron inverters.
The thyratron as a saw-tooth-wave generator.
A-c operation of thyratrons; phase control.
Phase-control circuits.
Use of saturable reactor in phase-control circuits.
Applications of phase-control circuits.
Thyratron welding control.
Mercury-pool arc-discharge tubes.
Arc initiation by means of an igniter.
Ignitron structure.
Comparision of thyratrons and ignitrons.
Ignitrol circuits.
Applications of ignitrons.
The strobotron.
Stroboscopes.
Problems.
CHAPTER 10
Light-Sensitive Tubes and Cells (305)
Types of photoelectric phenomena.
Historical survey.
Laws of photoelectric emission.
Current-wave-length characteristics.
Light units.
Current-voltage characteristics of the vacuum phototube.
Phototube sensitivity.
Theory of the gas phototube; gas phototube characteristics.
Phototube circuits.
Sensitivity of phototube and direct-coupled amplifier.
The anode diagram  and its use.
Design of phototube circuits.
Photoconductive cells.
Photovoltaic cells.
Comparision of phototubes, photoconductive cells, and photovoltaic cells.
Problems.
Supplementary bibliography.
CHAPTER 11
Rectifiers and Filters (336)
Definitions.
Wave form of rectified current.
Choice of rectifier tubes and circuit.
Characteristics of rectifier circuits.
Smoothing filters.
Analysis of condenser filter.
Voltage doublers.
Design of chole-condenser (L-section) filters.
Voltage stabilizers.
Illustrative problem.
Problems.
Supplementary bibliography.
CHAPTER 12
Electron-Tube Instruments (354)
Advantages of vacuum-tube voltmeters.
Plate-detection voltmeters.
Diode voltmeters.
Slide-back voltmeters.
Cathode-ray tubes and oscillographs.
Electron-ray tubes.
Problem.
Appendix (371)
Chart fot the determination of reactance (371)
Chart for the determination of decibel gain  (372)
Plate characteristics of typical amplifier tubes. (373)
Operating characteristics of typical rectifier tubes (378)
Operating data for typical amplifier tubes (379)
Author Index (381)
Subject Index (387)
Answers to Problems (395)

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